In the long run, a united alternative to globalization “in the American way” should be a united Europe.
However, according to experts, such a prospect can threaten only those government organizations that are in a permanent state of crisis. After all, globalization stimulates not only destructive processes, but also those that motivate politicians to work out new, more effective mechanisms of globalization in the American version of a united Europe. And the United States is primarily a nation state, and on this basis – a state "over"…
Under the pressure of globalization, the so-called additional burden "transitional" society, which includes Ukraine. After all, to some extent they are at the crossroads of the political process, and the problems that accompany globalization are added to the many problems of national importance.
In this case, the issue of politicians’ awareness of the place that the nation-state should occupy under the new conditions should become extremely relevant. Globalization processes as an objective and extremely powerful phenomenon will make their way without their approval or denial, but national political leaders have many means to adjust the development of this phenomenon to the specifics of their own country and use it to improve the welfare of the people …
There is every reason to believe that in the long run nation-states will remain the main chain of the mentioned pyramid of power. They will retain the functions of the main bearer of people’s sovereignty, general functions to protect the country and represent its interests in international relations, establish a system of legal norms and ensure law and order, legislative regulation of economic and social relations, socio-cultural development, development and implementation of national strategy. By the way, the nature of the processes of homogenization and sovereignty depends on the maturity and competence of national political institutions.
In addition, it should be recalled that in line with the principles of globalization, only a supranational alternative to national political institutions should be a real alternative. "fifth floor" of the specified model. Today, the only institution of this kind is the United Nations. But according to its own principles, this institution is designed to stimulate and consolidate the development of national political bodies, and not vice versa.
According to some criteria, the prototype of this model can be considered the European Union, which has almost all the features of the state:
elected by the population and empowered to pass laws by the European Parliament, the executive body – the EU Council of Ministers, which is accountable to the European Parliament and performs government functions, joint financial and economic institutions (currency, central bank, customs and visa border), etc.
However, due to the clearly adhered to the principle of territorial limitation and a certain separation from "another world" this body should be considered a model of regional rather than global integration.
3. The role played in the globalization process of the United States deserves special attention. Today, they are the undisputed world leader and, obviously, fully reveal the essence of the current state of globalization. After all, the direction of most actions on a global scale depends on them. They also enjoy most of the benefits of globalization. The point of anti-globalization criticism is (partly, rightly) directed at them.
However, this is only one side of the problem. After all, historical experience indicates the obligatory multiplicity of real subjects of politics and the alternative of the world political process, the short duration of outright domination (according to the analysis of the authoritative researcher I. Wallerstein, the ability of the hegemonic state to impose its will on other great powers is limited to 25- 50 years.). This opinion, by the way, is confirmed in modern practice.
This is how other globalization centers arise and gradually gain strength. In this case, China deserves priority, which in absolute terms is still far behind the world leader, but in terms of progress and an array of GDP growth (on average by almost 10% per year) is a potential leader. If we continue this trend, then in 20 years, according to experts, China’s GDP will be 20 trillion dollars, while the United States – only 13.5 trillion. "Greater China is capable of challenging the West" – More and more researchers are inclined to this opinion. In the long run, a worthy alternative to globalization "in the American way" a united Europe must become.
The combination of the above facts and logical constructions allows us to draw some generalizing conclusions on the problems of the article. The obvious impact of globalization processes on national political institutions confirms the previous statement about the essence of globalization as a complex and diverse phenomenon.
Under the pressure of globalization processes, the nation-state is subject to various vector influences, and not only unequivocally destructive. Although, of course, the latter prevail.
Destruction threatens, by our definition, both the structural and functional aspects of national statehood (homogenization and sovereignty) and its systemic foundations (attack on democracy). At the same time, globalization is strengthening interdependence and interconnections between national political institutions around the world, leading to the rapid spread of effective models of government.
It sounds paradoxical, but under the new conditions the role of the nation state must grow. After all, it transfers to inter-state and supranational institutions only some elements of its own functions and should be more effective in carrying out all traditionally existing functions, in conducting both clear and dynamic own policy. The new conditions multiply the challenges facing modern politicians.
4. Ukraine ranks 42nd in terms of globalization. Russia ranked 44th. This conclusion was reached by the authors of the annual "Globalization ranking" (Globalization Index), which publishes the annual magazine Foreign Policy.
There are four main parameters:
economic integration, personal, technology – the number of Internet users, participation in international politics.
Ireland has once again become the most globalized country. In second place – Singapore, in third place – Switzerland.
5. Globalization – a complex and multifactorial phenomenon that has distinctive features in terms of impact on the mechanisms of self-organization of modern society. Globalization cannot be perceived uniformly and linearly, considering it as a process of progressive internationalization of public life. Therefore, political tasks in the management process must be associated with the technological components of the system of protection of national sovereignty, strengthening the factors of social consolidation of society in Ukraine.
The main problem is to organically connect the tasks of European integration with the establishment of a model of socially oriented and at the same time structural and innovative development of the Ukrainian economy.
The way for the practical implementation of this idea is the way of humanization of social processes and consistent change of human self-consciousness in this direction.
The success of Ukraine’s integration into the European and world economic space, the ability of our country to realize its potential in the context of globalization depends on the correct choice of appropriate development strategy, which should be based on new innovative and intellectual approaches. Such a strategy should be developed both for the state as a whole and for individual regions of the country, to be the basis for building and developing rational relations.
Whether Ukraine is able to use the historically given most real chance and take a worthy place in the new world will be shown by the time and ability of the national elite, each of us to adequately respond to the complex and contradictory challenges of modern history. The foundation of the future must be in the present. There can be no just and prosperous Europe without Ukraine and Eastern Europe, which is an equally full part of Europe.
At the present stage of internal and external transformation processes a significant role in the potential of society is played by education, which should be most sensitive to changes, comprehend interests, use them in the educational process and on this basis influence educational work, embody the spiritual worldview of the individual. , its culture and moral values.
1. Catalog Globalism and Globalism: Problems of International Cooperation and Supranational Corporations, compiled by employees of the Department of Mass Work of the CDNB. VG Korolenko.
2. Internet site – www. radio. com. ua
3. Fundamental research of Stanislav Sokolenko "Global markets of the XXI century. Prospects of Ukraine" (- K.: Logos, 1998. – 565 p.).
4. Conference on globalization at the Donetsk Institute of Management.
5. Journal of Foreign Policy. "Globalization ranking" (Globalization Index).
Empirical sociology: development and structure. Abstract
Origins and development of empirical philosophy. The structure of empirical sociology. Structural functionalism
1. The origins and development of empirical philosophy
Currently, in almost all countries of the world are sociological studies, which are often of an applied nature, ie carried out by social order, and are designed to address emerging in the life of people social problems. Fundamental sociological research is usually carried out by scientists at universities, and in some countries also in research institutes. This specialization of work among sociologists arose in the 30’s of our century in the United States in connection with the emergence and widespread use of the social order to conduct certain sociological studies.
The Chicago School of buy compare contrast essay online Empirical Sociology was the existence in the first half of the twentieth century of a specific unit of the university with a fairly early tradition of research and a huge influence on the activities of sociologists throughout the country and then around the world.
Empirical sociology appears together with theoretical, but acquires its independent significance only at the beginning of our century as a specific area of sociological research with special traditions and logic of development. Although this role in the formation of sociology as a science was highly valued from the first steps, the organization and conduct of empirical sociological research was determined primarily by the needs of society.